When was Istanbul Province?
One of the characteristics of Istanbul was that it was founded only in 1909 (1325) after many other great ills of the first provincial organization. The reasons for this are explained in various works as follows:
Istanbul remained the chief city of the Ottoman state for 467 years until the conquest of the Ottoman Empire on May 29, 1453 by Fatih Sultan Mehmet and to the Parliament of the Grand National Assembly and hence to the date of its nationalization on 23 April 1920. On October 13, 1923, Ankara was accepted as a capital city and 16 days after that, on October 29, 1923, with the declaration of the Republic, Istanbul became a province of the new Republic of Turkey.
While Istanbul was the capital of the Ottoman Empire, in addition to the sovereign called the Sultan and the Chief Vice (Grand Vizier) and the Appellants (Ministers), that is, the Council of Ministers all located in the capital city in addition to the Ottoman Empire, Istanbul KadisI, Yeniçeri Ağası, İhtisab Since the people and organizations who were working with names such as Nazari, Serasker, Zabtiye Müşiri and Şehremini were busy, until 1909 (1325) there was no need for a governor to be appointed for the cities called “companionship” with the city of Istanbul. However, after the Ottoman Empire changed its form with the Constitutional Revolution, a law dated 22 July 1909 (1325) laid the first province in Istanbul.
From the conquest of Istanbul to the date of 1826 (1242) 373 years a significant part of the administrative and municipal affairs of the city was carried out by the personal appreciation and decisions of the persons appointed by the Sultan and the Vizier Assembly.
Their cities were called “Kadı” and in Istanbul they would be governed by a high court official who was also known as “Istanbul Lord” and at the same time dominated the city. Immediately under the Order of the “Istanbul Lord” and at its appointed officers, the Constitutional Court immediately imposed its decisions and decisions without any law.
In 1826 (1242), after the abolition of the Janissaries by the Second Sultan Mahmud, a new organization such as the Ministry was established with the name of “Ministry of Occupation” and as a counter provision for the control and inspection of the shopkeepers and the foodstuffs and municipal works and army expenses Tasks such as the training of the acquired artwork are given in this Nezare. The Ministry of Occupation could see the works belonging to both the Vilayete and the Municipality in Istanbul and the city would be busy with the ordination.
But not too long ago, the Taxation Department of the İhtisap Nezaretin was assigned to the Ministry of Finance, the municipal police and military affairs to the “Seraskerlik” authority. After a while, however, the police officers assigned to Seraskerliğ were discussed seriously and in 1846 (1262) a “Mystery Supervisor” was created and the municipal administration and police works were transferred to this Müşürlüğü. At this time, only municipal duties were left in the Ministry of Specialization.
Thus, during the twenty years from 1846 (1262) until 1866 (1282), the property administration and municipal police affairs of the province were executed. In the year of 1866 (1262), a parliament was established under the name of “Assembly-i İdare-i Liva-i Zaptiye” in order to engage in administrative and seclicate affairs of the districts of “Attachment” such as Çatalca, Şile, Kartal and Gebze. Four years later, in 1870 (1286), a 101-point order was published about the administrative, municipal and police courts of Istanbul and the governorship of the Gaption Mission was given.
According to this regulation, the administrative organization of the Gaptiye Müşürlüğü is composed of four secretarials (small in the province, a large administrative authority in the province), Istanbul, Beyoğlu, Üskiüdar and Çekmece and eight with names Galata, Adalar, Kartal, Eyüp, Yeniköy, Şile, Beykoz and Çatalca Kaymakamlık and Kucukcekmece, Suyolu kuruyas (villagers), Terkos, Gebze were four boards with the names. With this regulation, the Criminal Courts in Istanbul were given under the order of the Attorney General, like the courts of the other provinces, but the disadvantage of this was quickly understood and a year later, in 1871 (1287), the accidents and enforcement forces were separated and the courts were connected to the newly established Court of Justice. Thus, the authority of the governor was used by the Gaptiye Müşürü until the Revolution of 1877 (1293).
When the Ottoman government changed its form in this date, it was requested to give an innovation to the administration of Istanbul and the number of existing municipal offices (today’s municipal branch offices) was increased to twenty, but it could not be applied because it was Ottoman and Russian war. In 1878 (1294), the number of the municipal offices was reduced to him, and each office was appointed by the Government by a director. Administrative affairs of Istanbul were executed by these Municipal Directorates until 1908 (1324).
Although the province of Constitution was founded on July 22, 1909 (1325) for the first time in the province of Istanbul, the presence and authority of the province in the city was not felt because it was the center of the Istanbul government at that time.
After the establishment of a provincial organization in Istanbul and the addition of a provincial authority, a “Relief-Provincial Issue” for the Ministry of Internal Affairs came into being, and from time to time the necessity of the province was put forward, the commissions examined, and every new governor, Sehremini And has created a huge file in the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The exercise and execution was carried out by having a separate Governor and a Sehremini, and also by giving the role of Valhi Sehremini or the role of Governor of the City.
By the way: Istanbul Sehremini Operator Dr. Cemal Pasha (Topuzlu) From October 12, 1912 to November 8, 1914, Şehremini Ismet bey, from November 9, 1914 to April 29, 1915, Şehremini Bedri Bey, from April 30, 1915 to July 7, 1917 Until the Governor of Istanbul was the proxy. Governor Kani Bey from 14 July 1917 to 3 December 1917 and the second time from 12 August 1918 to 15 December 1918 and Governor Yusuf Ziya Bey from 16 December 1918 to 11 May 1919 to Istanbul Şehreminiğine They have been found by proxy.
Ataturk went to Samsun to start the National Struggle. In May 1919, in the transferring period until the declaration of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, he was found twice more in the Governorship, and the last was October 17, 1922, the October 17th, when Sultan Vahidettin escaped from Istanbul with an enemy ship. Miralay Esat Bey (Pasha), who was a governor from April 1922 to April 7, 1923, started from ten days ago.
The seas and the lands have been divided into 4 divisions of the Istanbul geography which is treated like a lace. Old Istanbul and Galata on the shores of the Golden Horn are located on two sides of the Bosphorus, now united settlement areas, each of which were separate villages. The inhabited places along the coast of the Marmara Sea, the world’s smallest sea, show the size of the dimensions reached by the city.
The Old City is spread over 7 hills of a triangular peninsula surrounded by 22 km of ramparts. This is a historic settlement, which is named after Byzantion, New or Second Roman, Constantinople or Police. The Marmara and Golden Horn walls have partially disappeared over time, while the main walls on the land side have remained relatively preserved. The wide western flank of the triangular peninsula is the land walls, the two sides of the sea walls, and the easternmost point is the Topkapı Palace. The widest and longest of the seven hills is the first. The palace is like a city in the city, surrounded by walls, is a tremendous complex structure and is a museum where rich, very important works are exhibited. The unique venue of the festival days is the Istanbul Archeology Gallery, which is the most important and unique among the Aya Irini and others. The Hagia Sophia Museum from the 8th Wonders of the World is located on the first hill level of the Sultan Ahmet Mosque, the Roman Hippodrome, the Yerebatan Palace Cistern, as well as the beauty of beauty. The second hill is the location of the oldest, largest “Grand Bazaar”, the Nuruosmaniye Mosque, the Cemberlitas column of the city’s Roman fortress. Suleymaniye on the third hill and Fatih camiirs on the fourth hill, the Roman revolving aqueduct extends between the two hills. Şehzade Mosque and Istanbul Municipality are also located here. The gigantic Roman turnpike open cisterns that used to meet the water need of the city in the past are the other higher hills. Sultan Selim mosque is fifth, Kariye Museum is located on the slope of sixth hill. The roads passing through the ridges of these hills, starting from the Hagia Sophia square and leaving to the arms and reaching the walls of the walls, follow Roman routes. The three-tiered land walls, which border the west, are the most magnificent example of Roman military architecture. The walls reach the north, Eyüp in Halic. The Eyüp Sultan mosque, which gave the name of Semte, is known as the first mosque built in the city.
The Golden Horn is a narrow, horn-like gulf with a length of 8 km. The unique and magnificent silhouette of Istanbul can be watched in the most beautiful way from the sea, from the Asian coasts and from the entrance of the Golden Horn. The desire to be cleaned is eliminated, the fish return and watch the parks and gardens surrounding it, waiting for the remaining shipyard to be taken from the waters. The Orthodox Patriarchate and the small, charming Bulgarian Church are bounded by the ancient Galata bridge, which was settled here. The interesting new museum of the Koç family here exhibits different objects. Golden Horn won the minarets of miniature cities of the great works of Turkey, which was opened in 2003, and a new cruising place.
Galata region and its extension Pera has different views from the old city. Symbol This Galata tower, with its sloping streets, leads the way to Beyoğlu with its sloping streets, and preserves the original features of the city, living the European architectural heritage of 100 years ago, with its external appearance. Europe’s second old metro Tunnel still maintains its title as “the shortest”. The top of the tunnel is the beginning of Istiklal Caddesi. The old street where the old trams were put into service again, only the open street is surrounded by the old embassy buildings allocated to the consulates in the Republic era. Museum of Divan Literature Tunnel is a beautiful building with the Mevlevi Tekkesi (18th century). On the street there are the famous Galatasaray High School, opposite Çiçek Pasaji colorful, authentic restaurants, fish and fruit market. The streets that reach to the Taksim Square with its cinemas, theater, cafés, restaurants and entertainment places side by side, have been reunited with the exquisite bright, moving, always crowded days and nights. The Turkish War of Independence is embellished with the eye-catching monument of Taksim that symbolizes Ataturk and his friends. Atatürk Cultural Center is located in the north under the main terminal square of the new metro.
The 5-star Hyatt and Intercontinental are located in Taksim Park, Istanbul Hilton Hotel is also here; Hilton (1955), the first hotel to be built in Turkey in its class, is still the most famous and best kept property. Radio House, Istanbul Military Museum, Lütfü Kırdar Congress Palace, Open Air Theater are among the richest of the family. Towards the north, there are always moving Nişantaşı and Şişli sections where small boutiques are located, painting and art galleries are widespread. Further north, the Aky Center shopping center in Etiler offers new and large facilities. The high buildings built by these civilizations have made a change in the landscape of the city. The 7th, 8th and 9th centuries were the years of encirclement for Istanbul. The city that was attacked by the Sassanids and Avarlar in the seventh century, the Bulgarians in the eighth century and the Muslim Arabs in the ninth century were the enemies of the Russians and the Bulgarians. In 1204, the city was taken over by the Crusaders and plundered. After this occupation and looting, the greatest city in the Middle Ages turned into a poor and ruined city with 40-50,000 inhabitants. After this period, Istanbul began to shrink and become impoverished. The city was noble and the rich immigrated to Iznik. The Latin Empire was only able to rule in Istanbul and its region. A Byzantine opposition developed in Epiros in Iznik (Nikia), Trabzon and Greece. By 1254, the Latin Empire was surrounded. At this time, Istanbul was very poor and even the Latin Emperor II. Baudouin began to use the wooden parts of the palace as a fire to warm up. Finally in 1261 Palaiogos Hanidani recaptured Istanbul and thus the Latin period in Istanbul ended.
The magnificent and magnificent view of Suleymaniye Mosque, which is the most beautiful artistic work of art history through the newly renovated Galata Bridge, is insatiable. The Valide Mosque and the Egyptian Bazaar were located opposite the bridge. Originally established for spice traders, the bazaar is the second largest and lively district of the city with 100 shops. In addition to the original shops, various merchandise and dry fruit sellers, fishermen and fruit makers outside, flower shops are in order. Regular ferry services to the Asian shores, Üsküdar and Kadıköy, Bosphorus or Adalara are made against the stands on the side of the bridge. The fish-bread and onion markets, which are sold on boats, have always come to the customer. Sirkeci train station, which is living with the dream of the old stunning Orient Express days, serves to the members of the Sepetçiler Kasrı International press on the beach while decorating the Sirkeci square with its interesting architecture. The famous Bab-ı Aliyokuşu, climbing up the hill from the station front, is a historic road to the Governorship of Istanbul.
The dock that extends between Tophane and Galata Bridge is dedicated to tourist ships only. With flights starting in April, millions of travelers arrive at the scene until the end of October. The Tophane building has been restructured as a gallery serving the artistic life of the city. Dolmabahçe Palace and Mosque Beyond this district, the ornaments of the Bosphorus are like jewel boxes. Behind the palace, the hillside 5-star Swiss hotel rises. From here, the beauty of Üsküdar and Çamlıca hills on the opposite shore and Topkapı Palace and Hagia Sophia in the west can be seen.
The Bosphorus can be watched at a distance of 30 km while curving like a river towards the Black Sea, stretching the curvature; From the shores of the lake, which changes every turn. Houses; Palaces, glass and stalactites, and the slopes and hills are covered with greenery reflecting the color of the sea. The Old Fortress and the modern 2 suspension bridge witness this beauty of nature. White gulls follow white steamers. One of the giant tankers that look like black ghosts from a jetty, while the ships are floating in the blue water while the ships are floating in the dark blue waters, with a dangerous oil cargo from the Black Sea, this beautiful waterway, without pipeline, could strive to surpass it. The northern sections of the Bosphorus, where the waters flood with sparkles, are not open to settlement but are surrounded by greenery.
Üsküdar is a historical city developed as the last stop of roads coming from Asia. Üsküdar, the shortest crossing point to Europe, is decorated with beautiful glass. The ridges to the Çamlıca hills are covered with cypress trees, filled with old-new cemeteries; Büyük Çamlıca Hill is a promenade dominated by the entire city as a viewing point in the park. On the way from the beach, the beautiful Kiz Kulesi and the works of Istanbul peninsula are reached Kadıköy by watching all the majesty. Florence Nightingale Hospital, known as the Selimiye Barracks, which is the biggest old building in the city or West, Haydarpaşa Train Station, which is a beautiful structure left in the university while it is Haydarpaşa High School and Haydarpaşa Train Station in Prussian architectural style are characteristic structures of this region. The commercial harbor facilities of the coastal city extend.
Kadıköy is known as legendary first settlement in the vicinity. Typical bazaar, beautiful Moda bay, Fenerbahçe park and marinas, famous for its modern Baghdad cemetery, is an asude, a semantic. Like a bad fate, it does not have much of the old gorgeous, gardened pavilions and mansions at the end of this great zoning activity. The shopping galleries that are built in the center and in the vicinity are the most modern and big in the city.
The islands are located in the first place of the places which carefully protect the property of Istanbul. Although the island is transported by sea buses, the only vehicles there are phaetons. The cottage houses, well-kept beautiful gardens are close to the piers. The islands covered with pine trees, which are in spring and summer fashion, are deserted in winter. Each season is distinct beauty. The islands are places where the public and yachts like to have a picnic and swim at weekends.